By Michelle Roberts
Well being editor, BBC Information on-line

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UK hospitals are anticipated to start out giving the primary doses of the Pfizer/BioNtech coronavirus vaccine to individuals from Tuesday eight December.

However whereas many individuals need an injection as quickly as potential, others are fearful about placing one thing unknown into their our bodies.

How do we all know a vaccine is protected?

Security trials start within the lab, with checks and analysis on cells and animals, earlier than shifting on to human research.

The precept is to start out small and solely transfer to the subsequent stage of testing if there aren’t any excellent security issues.

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What function do trials have?

So long as the protection information from the labs is sweet, scientists can verify that the vaccine or therapy is efficient too.

Which means checks on massive numbers of volunteers – round 40,000 people within the case of Pfizer/BioNTech.

Half the volunteers are given the vaccine and the opposite half a dummy or placebo jab. The researchers and individuals are usually not instructed which group is which, till after the outcomes have been analysed, to keep away from bias.

The entire work and findings are checked and verified independently.

The Covid vaccine trials have occurred at breakneck velocity, however they have not skipped any of those steps.

The Oxford/AstraZeneca Covid vaccine trial was voluntarily put on hold at one stage to analyze why one participant – out of many 1000’s – had died. It restarted as soon as it was clear it was not associated to the vaccine.

Who approves vaccines or remedies?

Approval will solely be given for a vaccine within the UK if the federal government regulator, the Medicines & Healthcare merchandise Regulatory Company (MHRA), is comfortable that it is each protected and efficient.

Checks on the vaccine will proceed to ensure there aren’t any additional unintended effects or long-term dangers.

Impartial consultants on the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) determine how finest to make use of a vaccine and who ought to get it first.

What’s within the Covid vaccines?

Pfizer/BioNTech’s vaccine (and Moderna’s) makes use of bits of genetic code to trigger an immune response, and known as an mRNA vaccine.

It doesn’t alter human cells, however merely presents the physique with directions to construct immunity to Covid.

The Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine makes use of a innocent virus altered to look much more like Sars-CoV-2 – the virus that causes Covid-19.

Vaccines generally include different substances, like aluminium, that make the vaccine steady or more practical.

Will a vaccine make me ailing?

There isn’t any proof that any of those substances trigger hurt when utilized in such small quantities.

Vaccines don’t provide you with a illness. As an alternative, they educate your physique’s immune system to recognise and battle the an infection they’ve been designed to guard towards.

Some individuals do undergo gentle signs after being vaccinated, akin to muscle aches or a temperature.

This isn’t the illness itself, however the physique’s response to the vaccine.

Allergic reactions to vaccines are uncommon. For any permitted vaccine, the substances can be listed.

The MHRA says it hasn’t recognized any “severe antagonistic reactions” through the trial of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine.

Bear in mind that anti-vaccine tales are unfold on-line via social media. These posts are usually not primarily based on scientific recommendation (or mix information with misinformation).

picture captionTwo full doses of the Oxford vaccine gave 62% safety, a half dose adopted by a full dose was 90% and total the trial confirmed 70% safety.

Is it protected for somebody who had Covid to have the vaccine?

Individuals will nonetheless be supplied the jab even when they’ve had Covid-19 up to now.

That is as a result of pure immunity is probably not long-lived and immunisation might provide extra safety.

Guidance from Public Health England says there aren’t any security issues about giving jabs to individuals with “lengthy” Covid both. However people who find themselves presently unwell with Covid-19 shouldn’t obtain the vaccine till they’ve recovered.

How animal-friendly are vaccines?

Some vaccines, such because the shingles vaccine and the kids’s nasal flu vaccine, can include pork gelatine.

And a few vaccines are grown on hen’s eggs, or cells from chick embryos.

There are lots of of Covid vaccines in improvement. We do not have particulars on each ingredient but, however lots of the Covid vaccines are anticipated to be vegetarian or vegan-friendly.

If everybody else will get vaccinated then absolutely I need not trouble?

There may be overwhelming scientific proof that vaccination is one of the best defence towards severe infections.

Covid vaccines seem to cease individuals getting very sick and will save lives.

The primary doses that change into obtainable can be supplied to individuals with the very best want – such because the aged – who might change into severely ailing.

It isn’t but clear how a lot safety vaccines may give by way of stopping individuals from spreading Covid.

If they will do that nicely, vaccinating sufficient individuals would stamp out the illness.

What do I must know in regards to the coronavirus?

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