In a name with governors, Trump suggests some states ought to reopen colleges.
President Trump urged to the nation’s governors on Monday that some ought to transfer to reopen their public colleges earlier than the tip of the educational 12 months, a sign that he’s rising impatient with the widespread closures to curb the coronavirus outbreak.
“A few of you would possibly begin to consider college openings,” Mr. Trump stated on a convention name with the governors, in line with an audio recording obtained by The New York Instances. “The younger kids have completed very properly on this catastrophe that we’ve all gone via, so lots of people are fascinated by the college openings.”
Addressing Vice President Mike Pence, who was additionally on the decision, Mr. Trump added, “I feel it’s one thing, Mike, they’ll significantly take into account and perhaps get occurring it.”
The president’s nudge on college openings runs counter to the recommendation of medical specialists and got here unbidden throughout a dialog about testing and respirator use. It’s the newest signal of how torn he’s on how states and localities ought to proceed as they weigh what to do at a time when deaths from the virus are nonetheless rising however the financial system is reeling.
“Individuals need to see these states open,” Mr. Trump stated at the beginning of the decision. “There’s a thirst to get again to enterprise.”
Mr. Trump reiterated his want to see colleges open Monday night on the White Home, saying, “I feel you’ll see a number of colleges open up, even for a brief time frame.”
No less than one state was already transferring ahead with the opportunity of reopening colleges this 12 months. Montana, which has among the many fewest circumstances and deaths, will give colleges the choice to reopen beginning Could 7.
Earlier Monday, Gov. Philip D. Murphy of New Jersey said on CNBC that there was “an opportunity” colleges in New Jersey would possibly reopen in some trend earlier than the tip of June.
Within the portion of the recording obtained by The Instances, no governor chimed in to agree or disagree with the president.
Two weeks in the past, Mr. Trump urged his supporters to “liberate” a handful of states with Democratic governors. However final week, he repeatedly criticized Gov. Brian Kemp of Georgia for what he stated was Mr. Kemp’s untimely reopening of some Georgia companies.
Mr. Kemp, a Republican, was on the decision with the president and effusively thanked Mr. Trump for his management. The disagreement didn’t come up.
Gov. Tate Reeves of Mississippi, a Republican, was equally effusive in his reward. “Members of the press could by no means acknowledge your unbelievable management, however the folks of Mississippi actually acknowledge it,” he stated.
To that, Mr. Trump responded: “I agree with you, it in all probability won’t ever be acknowledged. However perhaps it would, you by no means know.”
After governors repeatedly warned that the shortage of testing was hampering their efforts to ease restrictions, the Trump administration launched a blueprint on Monday geared toward serving to states ramp up testing.
The aim, in line with administration officers who detailed it on the situation of anonymity, is for states to have the ability to take a look at at the very least 2 % of their populations each month. However that quantity was not included in a document launched by the White Home on Monday night outlining the plan.
The blueprint stated that the states would nonetheless be primarily chargeable for testing, and that Washington could be “a provider of final resort.” Fairly than the extra complete surveillance testing sought by many public well being specialists, the administration is targeted on a extra restricted aim of “sentinel” testing at focused websites which can be significantly susceptible, like nursing houses and inner-city well being facilities, the doc stated.
“We need to get our nation open, and testing is just not going to be an issue in any respect,” Mr. Trump stated on the White Home on Monday night, the place he spoke in broad phrases about rising testing.
The plan was met with swift criticism from Democrats, together with Senator Patty Murray of Washington, who stated in a press release that it stated “nothing new and can accomplish nothing new.”
“It doesn’t set particular, numeric objectives, provide a time-frame, establish methods to repair our damaged provide chain or provide any particulars in any way on increasing lab capability or activating wanted manufacturing capability,” stated Ms. Murray, the senior Democrat on the Well being, Training, Labor and Pensions Committee, whose state suffered one of many earliest and most extreme outbreaks.
“Maybe most pathetically, it makes an attempt to shirk clearly federal obligations by assigning them solely to states as a substitute,” she stated.
Prior to now, the Trump administration has typically promised giant will increase in testing that it has didn’t ship. Requested on the information convention Monday about why an earlier promise that 4 million assessments could be accessible by March had not materialized, Mr. Pence stated he had merely been speaking concerning the variety of assessments that might be despatched out — not accomplished.
Within the seven weeks since Mr. Trump promised that anybody who wanted a take a look at may get one, america has carried out about 5.four million assessments, way over some other nation, however nonetheless the equal of about 1.6 % of the whole inhabitants. It’s a small fraction of what public well being specialists say is critical to make sure a secure and gradual reopening of colleges, companies and different public venues.
Governors and public well being officers warn that with out extra assessments, they are going to be unable to establish, observe and comprise new outbreaks.
A gaggle of specialists convened by Harvard College’s Edmond J. Safra Middle for Ethics has called for five million tests a day by early June, ramping as much as 20 million per day by late July.
Paul Romer, a Nobel Prize-winning economist from New York College, has referred to as for 25 million assessments per day, with the capability to check twice that many in “surge” conditions.
Mr. Romer stated testing 2 % of the inhabitants was “not sufficient to check everybody in well being care even as soon as, not to mention to maintain retesting them daily, which is what it might take to maintain those that do get contaminated from occurring shift and infecting their colleagues.”
Whereas america has made strides over the previous month in increasing testing, its capacity is nowhere near the level Mr. Trump suggests it is. It has proved tough to extend manufacturing of reagents — delicate chemical substances that detect whether or not the coronavirus is current. Bodily elements of take a look at kits, like nasal swabs, are largely imported and have been arduous to come back by amid world shortages. And labs have been gradual so as to add folks and gear wanted to course of the assessments.
The administration had resisted a full-scale nationwide mobilization, as a substitute intervening infrequently to allocate gear on an advert hoc foundation.
However throughout a name with governors on Monday, Adm. Brett P. Giroir, the assistant secretary for well being on the Division of Well being and Human Providers, stated the administration would start making weekly shipments to states to get them the gear they wanted, with plans to ship out 12.7 million swabs in Could.
“We’re going to be resourcing you on a weekly foundation to attain your plan,” Admiral Giroir stated, responding to complaints from Gov. Jay Inslee of Washington a couple of lack of swabs to conduct assessments, in line with a recording. “Each week, you’ll get a cargo in your state for additional distribution, and that may have all of the swabs.”
Gov. Greg Abbott of Texas on Monday introduced the reopening of the state’s companies in phases beginning Friday and stated he was permitting the stay-at-home order he put in place this month to run out as scheduled on April 30.
Mr. Abbott had beforehand lifted some restrictions, together with on retail procuring and state parks. However his announcement on Monday introduced the nation’s second-most populous state to the brink of a whole reopening.
His transfer gave Texas one of many shortest stay-at-home orders within the nation: It’ll have been in impact for 28 days when it expires on Thursday. “That government order has completed its job to gradual the expansion of Covid-19,” Mr. Abbott informed reporters on the State Capitol on Monday.
Within the first part, which begins on Friday, all retail shops, eating places, film theaters and malls will be capable to reopen with occupancy restricted to not more than 25 %. Capability can later develop “as long as Covid-19 stays contained,” he stated.
Mr. Abbott has struggled to discover a center floor within the heated political, financial and public well being subject of when and the way to reopen the state.
Democrats have criticized his dealing with of the disaster and urged him to gradual the reopening. Many Republicans, together with a few of Mr. Abbott’s colleagues on the suitable and conservative activists, have urged him to loosen the restrictions and have protested exterior the Texas Capitol and the governor’s mansion in Austin.
Some states have banded collectively in regional pacts as they develop reopening plans, however Texas has resisted, an unsurprising transfer for a fiercely unbiased state that’s the just one within the continental United States that has its personal energy grid.
The legal professional common tells prosecutors to search for unconstitutional virus orders.
Legal professional Common William P. Barr on Monday requested federal prosecutors across the nation to look out for emergency state or native orders issued to comprise the pandemic that would additionally violate “constitutional rights and civil liberties,” and to battle them in courtroom if wanted.
“If a state or native ordinance crosses the road from an acceptable train of authority to cease the unfold of Covid-19 into an overbearing infringement of constitutional and statutory protections, the Division of Justice could have an obligation to handle that overreach in federal courtroom,” Mr. Barr wrote in a memo.
Matthew Schneider, america legal professional for the Jap District of Michigan, will work with Eric Dreiband, the pinnacle of the Justice Division’s Civil Rights division, to supervise and coordinate the hassle.
Mr. Barr has signaled for weeks that he’ll fight shutdown orders that violate the Structure. The Justice Division filed a motion this month in help of a Baptist church in Greenville, Miss., that sued the town and its mayor for outlawing the congregation’s drive-in church providers at the same time as the town allowed drive-in eating places to serve prospects. The town fined churchgoers however later withdrew the fines, and Greenville has since modified its order. Attorneys for the church stated that the authorized matter would more than likely be dropped.
Companies in states together with Colorado, Georgia, Minnesota and Mississippi tried to navigate the brand new guidelines permitting a few of them to reopen starting Monday.
“I couldn’t sleep final evening as a result of I used to be so confused,” Jose Oregel, who owns a barbershop in Greeley, Colo., stated on Monday morning, an hour earlier than he was anticipating his first prospects, who will get haircuts from barbers carrying masks and gloves.
In Georgia, the place Mr. Kemp’s determination to let eating places reopen to eat-in diners on Monday regardless of an uptick in deaths drew criticism from Mr. Trump, many Atlanta institutions determined not to take action. One restaurant that attempted was Rocky Mountain Pizza Firm, close to the Georgia Institute of Know-how. It opened its doorways Monday morning, however as of 12:30 p.m., nobody had come to take a seat down for lunch.
“I can’t think about myself going to a pub or a restaurant proper now,” stated Filippos Tagklis, 30, a graduate pupil at Georgia Tech, as he walked his canine by the restaurant.
Within the week since Mr. Kemp outlined his plans to let companies within the state reopen, the dying toll in Georgia has risen by greater than 200, to 942, in line with the state’s Department of Public Health. Public well being officers and mayors criticized the plan.
In Minnesota, Gov. Tim Walz lifted restrictions for sure workers in industrial, manufacturing and workplace settings, a transfer that his workplace stated would enable 80,000 to 100,000zero folks to return to work Monday at the same time as circumstances and deaths continued to grow. But it surely was unclear how many individuals returned to work, as some employers determined it was safer to not rush.
And in Ohio, Gov. Mike DeWine introduced a cautious reopening plan on Monday that included resuming well being care appointments on Friday and the reopening of retail shops beginning Could 12. However he stated many different companies must wait. “We’re not fairly there but,” he stated.
Extra governors and companies throughout the nation are going through more and more difficult decisions about reopening this week, with a number of stay-at-home orders set to run out on April 30.
Kentucky will allow extra well being care providers, equivalent to radiology and outpatient care, to renew on Monday.
In Florida, Gov. Ron DeSantis has not but launched a plan for broad reopening, although one is predicted within the subsequent few days. “There’s in all probability going to be some those who suppose that is too gradual,” he stated at a information convention in Tampa on Monday. The mayors of Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Seaside counties in Southeast Florida introduced that they’ll reopen parks, golf programs and marinas on Wednesday. (Seashores will stay closed.)
In New York, Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo on Sunday laid out a broad outline for a gradual restart of the state that might enable some “low danger” companies upstate to reopen as quickly as mid-Could. He didn’t speculate when restrictions could be eased in New York Metropolis and surrounding suburbs. The governor stated Monday that 337 extra folks had died within the state on Sunday, the bottom single-day dying toll since March.
In New Jersey, Mr. Murphy stated Monday that he would wish to see four things before he would consider reopening companies and colleges: a protracted decline in hospitalization and an infection charges, expanded testing, extra contact tracing and locations for individuals who had been sick with the virus to stay in isolation.
And a few governors have stated their states merely aren’t able to reopen. Gov. John Bel Edwards of Louisiana stated on Monday that he was extending the state’s stay-at-home order till Could 15, noting that many components of his hard-hit state had been seeing an rising or regular variety of new circumstances.
“The very fact is,” Mr. Edwards stated at a information briefing, “we simply don’t meet the factors.”
Louisiana has been probably the most significantly affected areas, with greater than 27,000 reported circumstances and just below 1,700 deaths, in line with state well being information. The governor stated that he had consulted with public well being specialists earlier than making the choice and that Mr. Pence, whom he informed earlier than the announcement, had backed his selection.
Reopening the financial system may put black and Latino staff at larger danger.
Black and Latino Individuals entered the coronavirus disaster with decrease incomes and fewer wealth than whites. Within the early months of the outbreak and its recession, they suffered disproportionately excessive charges of an infection and job loss.
It’s a pick-your-poison reality of a disaster that has exacerbated racial and socioeconomic inequality in america: The pandemic has knocked thousands and thousands of probably the most economically susceptible Individuals out of labor. Speeding to reopen their employers may provide them a monetary lifeline, however at a doubtlessly steep value to their well being.
Individuals who earn $50,000 a 12 months or much less are greater than twice as more likely to say they or a member of the family have misplaced jobs amid the disaster as those that earn greater than $150,000. Greater earners and whites are way more more likely to say they’ll work at home in the course of the pandemic than decrease earners and black and Latino Individuals, in line with an April ballot for The New York Instances by the web analysis agency SurveyMonkey.
Simon Mongey and Alex Weinberg, economists on the College of Chicago, launched a examine final month that discovered these staff had been disproportionately nonwhite, low revenue, born exterior america and never faculty graduates.
“There might be immense and devastating revenue results that might be concerned with this evolving melancholy,” stated William A. Darity Jr., a number one scholar of financial discrimination in america. Inequality, he stated, “has been horrendous lately, and I can solely think about these disparities would worsen.”
Greater than 50,000 folks have died from the coronavirus in america, which has seen extra confirmed circumstances and deaths than some other nation on this planet, in line with a tally by The New York Times.
And because the outbreak unfold, the nation’s complete variety of confirmed circumstances continued to climb towards a million, reaching greater than 983,000.
The tally doesn’t embrace greater than 5,200 folks in New York City and smaller numbers in different states and U.S. territories who died and are believed to have had the virus. A lot of these sufferers weren’t examined, a consequence of a strained medical system and a persistent lack of testing capacity.
At the same time as case numbers have stabilized in some hard-hit cities, together with New Orleans and Seattle, different locations have seen sustained progress.
The counties that embrace Los Angeles and Chicago added greater than 1,000 new circumstances on a number of current days. In Massachusetts, numbers surpassed 54,000 on Sunday, up from 38,000 every week earlier. And throughout the Midwest and Nice Plains, manufacturing at meatpacking plants had slowed or stopped due to giant outbreaks, together with one which sickened greater than 1,000 folks in South Dakota.
In New York, tons of of deaths are introduced every day, although these numbers are far under their peak earlier this month. Now, 60 % of voters in New York Metropolis say they personally know somebody who examined optimistic, and 46 % know somebody who died of the virus, in line with a ballot by the Siena Faculty Analysis Institute.
Though america has the best variety of deaths on a worldwide scale, deaths per capita stay decrease than these in lots of European international locations, notably Italy and Spain. The worldwide toll has surpassed 200,000, although at the very least 36,000 extra folks have died previously month than the official counts report, in line with a review of mortality data in 12 countries.
Congress plans to return to session subsequent week regardless of stay-at-home orders.
Congressional leaders introduced on Monday that the Home and Senate would each return to session in Washington subsequent week regardless of an ongoing stay-at-home order from the town’s mayor and related restrictions across the nation.
Senator Mitch McConnell, Republican of Kentucky and the bulk chief, stated that his chamber would “modify routines in methods which can be good and secure,” however that Individuals anticipated senators to be working similar to different important staff.
Home leaders stated they’d additionally convene on Monday however informed lawmakers to anticipate a scaled-back voting schedule and extra emphasis on restarting work by committees that may conduct oversight of the Trump administration’s virus response and different routine enterprise.
Consultant Steny H. Hoyer of Maryland, the No. 2 Democrat, stated the Home would vote subsequent week with or with out Republican help to alter its guidelines to permit proxy voting and digital committee conferences — talents that would enable the chamber to function extra absolutely on a distant foundation within the weeks forward.
Nonetheless, some Democratic lawmakers had been uneasy about packing again into the Capitol at a time when well being specialists have repeatedly warned towards journey and group gatherings. On a Democratic convention name Monday night, Consultant Debbie Wasserman Schultz, Democrat of Florida, referred to as the plan to return harmful, in line with two folks on the decision who described the non-public dialogue on the situation of anonymity.
Consultant Veronica Escobar, Democrat of Texas, stated she had heard related considerations from fellow freshmen in districts the place the unfold of the virus was close to its peak, in line with one other particular person on the decision.
Lower than an hour after the Small Enterprise Administration on Monday morning resumed taking requests for one more $310 billion in emergency support for small companies, its pc system for processing the mortgage purposes crashed.
“It’s apparent the system is solely flooded proper now,” stated Craig Avenue, the chief lending officer at United Midwest Financial savings Financial institution in Columbus, Ohio. “It’s been very cease and begin, with no actual technique to know whether or not it’s working apart from to maintain hitting the submit button.”
It was a rocky resumption for the Paycheck Safety Program, a stimulus initiative that gives small corporations forgivable loans to cowl their payrolls. This system started early this month, however its preliminary spherical of funding — $342 billion — was depleted in 13 days and the company stopped accepting requests, leaving tons of of 1000’s of debtors frozen out till Congress supplied a brand new funding spherical final week. The federal government started accepting purposes for it at 10:30 a.m. on Monday.
Officers on the Small Enterprise Administration, which is managing this system, didn’t instantly reply to questions concerning the technical issues that lenders had been reporting with E-Tran, the company’s pc system for processing loans.
“Our member banks throughout the nation are deeply annoyed at their incapacity to entry @SBAGov’s E-Tran system,” Rob Nichols, the chief government of the American Bankers Affiliation, a commerce group representing banks of all sizes, stated in a tweet on Monday. Till the issues had been fastened, he added, “#AmericasBanks will be unable to assist extra struggling small companies.”
A New York Times investigation discovered that dozens of huge however lower-profile corporations with monetary or authorized issues had acquired giant payouts beneath this system, in line with an evaluation of the greater than 200 publicly traded corporations which have disclosed receiving a complete of greater than $750 million in bailout loans. Some corporations, together with Potbelly Sandwich Retailers, the Los Angeles Lakers, and Shake Shack stated they’d return their loans.
The changes in behavior, tracked utilizing cellphone location information, have been measured previously two weeks and could be seen in all however three states.
Lei Zhang, director of the Maryland Transportation Institute on the College of Maryland, Faculty Park, which is main the analysis, stated that the information urged that folks had been rising more and more stressed and that folks had been rising the possibilities that they’d work together with others and probably unfold the virus.
Dr. Zhang referred to as the phenomenon “quarantine fatigue.”
In New York on Saturday, hotter, sunnier climate drew crowds on Lengthy Island seashores and to the city’s parks.
New information confirmed a rise in motion throughout the state, he stated.
“This virus doesn’t go house as a result of it’s a good looking sunny day round our coasts,” Mr. Newsom stated.
He stated he would current extra particulars on reopening the financial system on Tuesday however careworn that any rest of the state’s shutdown could be contingent on definitive proof of a decline in hospitalizations and a ramped up capability to check for the virus, amongst different situations.
Mr. Newsom’s feedback got here as six counties within the Bay Space that put in place the nation’s first shelter-in-place orders in March introduced that the orders could be prolonged via the tip of Could. On the identical time, the governor has come beneath strain to ease restrictions in areas of the state much less affected by the pandemic.
Oil costs plunged on Monday, with the American benchmark hurtling towards the $10 a barrel mark, as fears a couple of world glut in crude continued to weigh on power markets.
However the S&P 500 rose greater than 1 %, and European benchmarks rose 1 to three % after a broadly greater day in Asia.
Since final week, buyers have been panicked about oil storage amenities operating out of capability as producers continued to pump oil at the same time as demand collapsed. That concern is most acute in america, the place storage amenities in Cushing, Okla., are anticipated to achieve capability in Could.
It’s one purpose the collapse in futures of American crude has been a lot sharper than the worldwide benchmark. On Monday, West Texas Intermediate crude, the U.S. benchmark, was down about 27 % at a bit greater than $12 a barrel. On the identical time, Brent crude, the worldwide benchmark, was down about 9 % to only above $19 a barrel.
One issue behind the distinction in worth is that the Cushing amenities are landlocked, reachable solely by pipeline, whereas Brent provides could be reached by boat and both saved there or positioned at amenities across the globe. Buyers betting on an eventual rebound in oil costs are filling oil tankers up — with as a lot as two million barrels per vessel — and parking them out at sea, The Instances’s Stanley Reed reported.
“I can ship a ship to the Brent discipline; I can’t ship a ship to Cushing,” stated Stuart Joyner, an analyst at Redburn, a market analysis agency.
Analysts say the unprecedented collapse of American crude costs into adverse territory on April 20 spooked buyers.
International cuts in oil manufacturing are set to start out on Friday, after the Group of the Petroleum Exporting International locations, together with Russia and different producers, agreed to cut back day by day output by 9.7 million barrels a day, which is near 10 % of world output, to handle a glut as demand for crude crashed.
The Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention has added six possible symptoms of coronavirus to its record, a step that displays the broad variation and unpredictability of the results of the sickness.
Echoing the observations of medical doctors treating 1000’s of sufferers, the federal well being company this month modified its web site to quote chills, repeated shaking with chills, muscle ache, headache, sore throat and new lack of style or scent as doable indicators of Covid-19.
The C.D.C. had listed simply three signs: fever, cough and shortness of breath. The company made no public announcement when it added the six new signs to its web site on April 18, and it didn’t instantly reply to questions concerning the revised record.
The revised C.D.C. record differs considerably from the signs described by the World Health Organization on its web site: fever, dry cough and tiredness. “Some sufferers could have aches and pains, nasal congestion, sore throat or diarrhea,” the W.H.O. says. “These signs are normally gentle and start regularly.”
Instances of the virus aboard a U.S. Navy destroyer rose over the weekend with at the very least 47 crew members testing optimistic, the Navy stated on Monday.
The destroyer — the united statesS. Kidd, which has roughly 300 crew members — is a part of a counternarcotics mission and is the second deployed American warship affected by the coronavirus.
Two sailors aboard the destroyer, which was deployed to the Caribbean and jap Pacific, have been evacuated to america and the ship is returning to port. Greater than a dozen sailors have been despatched to a close-by warship for monitoring. To date, almost 50 % of the crew have been examined for the virus.
The Theodore Roosevelt, an plane service that’s at the moment docked in Guam, has 955 energetic circumstances of the virus, in line with the Navy, and is about to return to its deployment within the western Pacific within the weeks to come back.
Preliminary outcomes for an arthritis drug as a therapy for Covid-19 are disappointing.
Medical doctors world wide, making an attempt to save lots of sufferers who’re significantly ailing with the virus, have been giving them arthritis medication that may squelch immune responses. The idea was that many had been dying as a result of their immune programs went into overdrive, making a deadly storm that attacked their lungs.
However now, preliminary results on remedies with one among these medication, sarilumab, which is made by Sanofi-Regeneron, point out that it doesn’t assist sufferers who’re hospitalized however not utilizing ventilators.
Sanofi-Regeneron instantly began a medical trial that randomly assigned 457 hospitalized sufferers to obtain 400 milligrams of sarilumab, 200 milligrams or a placebo. The sufferers fell into two teams — “extreme,” that means they required oxygen however didn’t want a ventilator or so-called high-flow oxygen, and “important,” who wanted a ventilator or high-flow oxygen or had been in intensive care.
Though the drug diminished c-reactive protein, which rises in extreme irritation, it didn’t assist the severely ailing sufferers, the businesses reported on Monday. A lot of these sufferers recovered on their very own. Eighty % had been discharged from the hospital, no matter whether or not they obtained the drug. Ten % remained hospitalized, and 10 % died.
The outcomes for the critically ailing sufferers aren’t conclusive, however there’s a trace that they is perhaps helped. The examine will proceed with solely critically ailing sufferers; greater than 600 have been enrolled, and outcomes are anticipated in early June.
Right here’s the way to care in your pets in quarantine.
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Reporting was contributed by Pam Belluck, Katie Benner, Alan Blinder, Jonah Engel Bromwich, Michael Cooper, Stacy Cowley, Jesse Drucker, David Enrich, Nicholas Fandos, Manny Fernandez, Thomas Fuller, David Gelles, Thomas Gibbons-Neff, Jack Healy, Shawn Hubler, Kate Kelly, Gina Kolata, Jonathan Martin, Patricia Mazzei, Sarah Mervosh, David Montgomery, MRoni Caryn Rabin, Katie Rogers, Rick Rojas, Jonathan Rothwell, Marc Santora, Jessica Silver-Greenberg, Eileen Sullivan, Jim Tankersley, Neil Vigdor, David Yaffe-Bellany and Mihir Zaveri.